CPU (Central Processing Unit) Computer processors and its Work

By   June 13, 2016

CPU or Central Processing Unit is the brain of Computer that handles all the instructions and performs arithmetic, logical and basic Input/output operations. It is the processor that determines the speed of a Computer system, with higher the processor speed the performance gradually increases. The speed of processor is measured in MHz (Mega Hertz) and GHz (Giga Hertz) i.e. the number of instructions per second.

Central Processing UnitCPU Computer Processors Overview:

The CPU or processor is an essential part of a Computer system that carries out all the operations and functions of a program. It is also known as the processor as each and every instruction has to pass through it before execution. The basic structure of a processor is like a microprocessor chip which speed depends on clock frequency to execute number of instructions per second. It performs all the basic arithmetic, logical, control and I/O operations by the instructions. The instructions may be from any I/O devices like keyboard or mouse, the CPU reads, executes and display on the monitor screen. There are several transistors placed in CPU that receives the input and results output. As we know a Computer understands only binary code, so CPU word size are counted in bit size that can be 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 bits. It mainly interacts with the primary storage or main memory of the Computer for instructions and data.

CPU processors are placed on Motherboard that has a socket for a particular processor and a heat sink or fan cools it down whenever CPU gets heated. Its performance depends on RAM size, bus speed and cache memory size as the higher we use the faster it can perform. The main functions of CPU computer processor are to fetch, decode, execute and write back. As it gets the instruction from I/O devices, CPU decodes the code for execution and produces the output into the main screen. It has several components and every component functions according to the speed of a processor that helps to execute the instructions faster and also makes the computer runs faster. There are number of companies designing the CPU processor chip like Intel, AMD, and Athlon with different models to carry out instructions faster.

Components of CPU Processor and its Work:

The main components of CPU computer processor include ALU or Arithmetic logic unit, CU or Control Unit and Registers. All the arithmetic and logical operations like add, subtract, multiply, divide and compare are all executed in ALU transistors. There are thousands of transistors inside a processor that makes these calculations happen by signals. Since the transistors can only understand binary digits i.e. 0 and 1, this signals the transistors to intake 1 when current pass through and zero when current not pass through. Therefore the transistors are the main part of a processor that makes the computer system to count and perform arithmetic and logical operations known as processing. The results in ALU are stored in memory or resistor for further operations.

The second component is Control Unit that manages and controls communication between the ALU and memory for executing or storing instructions. It reads the instruction from memory unit by using the fetch execute mechanism and converts the instruction into signals to activate the other parts of Computer. After that it transfers the instruction and calls ALU for further calculations. The third component is the Register unit which is a temporary storage area for instructions or data within the processors. It works faster and within control unit component to accept, hold and transfer the instructions or data for performing arithmetic and logical operation. Basically control unit uses the CPU Registers for storing data that can be executed later.Central Processing Unit Work

Main Factors of CPU Components:

The main factors of CPU processor depend upon its clock speed, cores and cache size. The speed of a processor is measured in MHz or GHz that determines the processor performance with its clock speed. But with clock speed CPU performance cannot be judged as the cores and cache size also makes a processor perform better. The cores are the engines that integrate with CPU that allows the computer to perform faster and also multi-tasking features. Multi-core processors are the one that allows various applications or programs to function faster. And with the growing technology there are dual core processors, core 2 duo, i5 and latest i7 processors that has a clock speed frequency upto 4.2GHz which really matters for best performance. Lastly the Cache memory which acts as a buffer between RAM and CPU to speed up the processors internal processing engine. It is also called as CPU buffer which is a super fast memory technology integrates to CPU processor. The main working principle of a cache memory is that it holds the instructions, so that the processor can grab and execute it quickly. Processors can have multiple levels and different size of caches that would improve the CPU performance.


CPU Computer processors have a major role to play in a Computer system with its various components for processing and executing instructions. There are many processors available that will increase the processing power of a CPU like Intel Pentium 4, Intel core i7, Core i5, Core i3 AMD phenom II X3, AMD Athlon II X4 and many more. Intel and AMD are the top CPU manufacturers with different range of processors in different price available in the market. One must look for the clock speed, cache size and core in order to buy a good processor for Computer PC. From my point of view you should go for the Intel core i7 or AMD Phenom II X4 processor which has a more price but better performance.




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